Do you have any idea what are conjunctive adverbs?

Adverbs and conjunctions are part of a speech. These two have different purposes in the English language. The adverb is used to describe the verb, adjective, and another adverb. It can be easily spotted because they typically end in -ly. Meanwhile, conjunction connects two or more phrases or sentences.

But, did you know these two can be combined and be a whole new entity? The combination results in a conjunctive adverb. Conjunctive adverbs are parts of speech that are used to connect one clause to another. They are also used to show sequence, contrast, cause and effect, and other relationships. Bottom line is adverb acts like a conjunction, it connects idea.

Here is the list of conjunctive adverbs you may use in writing or formal speaking engagement.

Conjunctive adverbs may function as an addition.

  • Again
  • Furthermore
  • In Addition

Conjunctive adverbs may function as a comparison.

  • also
  • as well
  • likewise
  • similarly

Conjunctive adverbs also show concession.

  • Nevertheless
  • nonetheless
  • of course
  • still

It may function for emphasis.

  • Certainly
  • Further
  • Indeed
  • Of course

Conjunctive adverbs can be used to prove a point.

  • for example
  • namely
  • that is
  • for instance

It can use to summarize.

  • all in all
  • in summary
  • finally
  • in conclusion

Lastly, it may also signify time.

  • Before
  • lately
  • now
  • since

How to use a conjunctive adverb?

In using a conjunctive adverb, there are several rules that need to be followed. Take note as well that these conjunctive adverbs may be moved around in the sentence or clause. Let’s start with the rules.

  • Always use a semicolon (;) or period (.) before the conjunctive adverb when you are separating two independent clauses. Keep in mind that conjunctive adverbs cannot withstand connecting independent clauses without this punctuation.

Example:

The bad weather stopped Charles from his afternoon run; moreover, he had thirty Maths problems to solve for his morning class.

  • Put a comma if a conjunction like but, and, so, or-or appears between the conjunctive adverb and the first independent clause.

Example:

Indeed, so, you need to change your research paper showing some interesting points.

  • If a conjunctive adverb appears in the middle of a clause, it should be enclosed in comma most of the time. This is not an absolute rule and does not normally apply to short clauses.

Example:

In giving your opinion, for instance, you need to be objective rather than subjective.

Now that you have a strong list of conjunctive adverbs to work with, be sure to punctuate around them properly. It’s important to use to remember these rules and words for better communication, both oral and written communication.

Read: Common Preposition Mistakes you Need to Correct!